Similarly, Leo XIII undoubtedly meant the Bull Apostolicae Curae,
18 September, 1896, to fix the belief and practice of the Catholic Church
for ever. In a letter to Cardinal Richard, 5 November, 1896, the Pope
declared that his intention has been absolute iudicare et penitus
dirimere, and that all Catholics must receive his judgement as
perpetuo firmam, ratam, irreuocabilem.